Tafsir

Sūrah al-Falaq and Sūrah an-Nās

Sūrah al-Falaq and Sūrah an-Nās

Known as the two protectors, Sūrah al-Falaq and Sūrah an-Nās complete the Quran as it began, with supplications that we recite on a daily basis. The Quran beings with the supplication for guidance i.e. Sūrah al-Fātiha, and it ends with two supplications for protections, Sūrah al-Falaq and Sūrah an-Nās.

Scholars differ on whether these Sūrahs were revealed in Makkah or Madinah. There is evidence both ways, but the style and prose of the Sūrahs are more in line with Makkan revelation. I am inclined towards the opinion that these two Sūrahs were revealed in Makkah, but their usage as daily supplications became common in Madinah. Allah knows best.

The themes of these two Sūrahs is very clear; they were revealed as protection supplications. It is recommended to recite these Sūrahs every morning and evening three times each for protection from all forms of evil. These Sūrahs list some of the names and attributes of Allah, calling on Him for protection, and list some of the things we seek protection from.

Protection from Worldly Calamities

Sūrah al-Falaq focuses on protection from worldly calamities. In this supplication, we ask Allah for protection from every evil thing that He created. We specifically ask Allah for protection from magic, jealousy, and the evil that occurs at night.

In this Sūrah, we learn that there exists in this world many forces of evil. Allah created these as a test for us. We are tested with many types of evil in this world. From tyrants to difficult relatives. From crime to jealous friends. Every human’s test is different. However, none of these things can harm us unless Allah wills it. Therefore, we take our precautions and seek Allah’s protection daily by reciting this Sūrah every morning and evening.

This Sūrah also indicates that a lot of evil happens at night. That is the time when people commit their biggest crimes or their best deeds. While one segment of humanity is involved in fornication, murder, or stealing late at night, there exists another group who spend the late portion of the night worshipping their Creator. We ask Allah to make us from the second group.

The Sūrah ends with a reminder that magic and jealousy are real sources of evil in this world. These days there is a lot of skepticism regarding the nature of magic and the evil eye. Muslims influenced by atheistic ideas deny the reality of these things because they cannot see them. This is a very problematic approach.

One of the fundamental principles of our religion is the belief in the unseen. This unseen world includes the world of the Jinn, which plays a role in dark magic and the evil eye. We don’t have to understand these concepts to believe in them. The fact that many humans throughout history, and even today, have experienced this phenomenon is evidence of their reality. Our job is simply to seek Allah’s protection from them and to never be a source of these evils for others.

Spiritual Protection

While Sūrah al-Falaq focuses on protection from worldly dangers, Sūrah an-Nās focuses on protection from the spiritual threat of misguidance. In this Sūrah, we are taught to ask Allah, the only true Lord, King, and God of humanity, for protection from the whispers of the devils. We are then reminded that these devils exist among both the jinn and humanity.

This Sūrah teaches us that it is important to ask Allah for protection from the devil and misguidance. Our guidance is dependent on Allah, and it is only His protection that keeps us safe from the devil. There is a profound point to be made about the placement of this Sūrah.

The Quran begins with a supplication for guidance and ends with a supplication for protection from misguidance. And everything in between teaches us that guidance and warns against those types of misguidance. In this way, the Quran completes a circle of protection. We are taught to ask Allah for guidance daily, but also to seek his protection from the whispers of the devil daily.

This Sūrah is also a reminder that not all devils are Jinn. There exists among humanity a segment that calls to the gates of Hell. These are people to openly promote evil and call others towards it. Whether it is the callers to sexual deviation or the callers to Atheism and Hedonism. These types of people are classified as devils as they do the work of the devils. With this Sūrah, we ask Allah for protection, not just from the whisperings of the jinn but from the influence of evil humans as well.

These are two of the most important Sūrahs in the Quran. Every Muslim should memorize these Sūrahs very early and establish a habit of reciting them multiple times a day, especially in the morning and evening. Doing so will help to protect us from every type of evil, both physical and spiritual.  

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Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ: Islamic Monotheism

Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ: Islamic Monotheism

Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ is one of the most powerful short Sūrahs in the Quran. Also known as Sūrah at-Tawḥīd, it is a summary of the core tenets of monotheism. In an authentic narration, it is referred to as one-third of the Quran. The message of the Quran focuses on three primary components of theology; monotheism, revelation, and the Afterlife. One-third of this message is summarized in Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ.

Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ is a Makkan Sūrah according to the majority of scholars. Its theme is purely Makkan in that it focuses on the essential attributes of Allah and clarification of pure monotheism. The scholars differ on whether it has four or five verses, with some schools of recitation counting “He does not beget” and “Nor was He begotten” as two separate verses. Allah knows best.

Virtues of Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ

It is reported on the authority of Abū Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Get together, for I am going to recite one-third of the Qur’an before you.” And those who could get together gathered there. Then the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) came out and recited: “Say: He, Allah, is One.” He then entered (his house). Some of us said to the others, “Perhaps there has been some news from the heaven on account of which he has gone inside (the house).” The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) again came out and said, “I told you that I was going to recite one-third of the Quran; keep in mind, this (Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ) is equivalent to one-third of the Qur’an.” (Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 6:316)

Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī narrated that a man heard another man reciting “Say He is Allah, the One.” repeatedly. The next morning he came to Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) and informed him about it as if he thought that it was not enough to recite. On that Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said, “By Him in Whose Hand my life is, this Sūrah is equal to one-third of the Qur’an!” (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 66: 35)

Pure Monotheism

The core message of this Sūrah is the Islamic understanding of monotheism. Islam is unique in its clear and uncompromising stance on the Oneness of God. Although the majority of religions, and the majority of humans, believe in One Creator, they have several major mistakes in their understanding of that Creator. The beauty of this Sūrah is that it clears up every one of those misconceptions with its four powerful verses.

The Sūrah begins by clarifying that there is only One God, Allah. This clarifies the misconception in many religions that there are one major god and several minor gods. The belief in a pantheon of gods was very common in several ancient religions and still exists in some parts of the world today. This verse makes it very clear that there is only One God.

The second verse clarifies that God is as-Ṣamad. The name as-Ṣamad is difficult to translate into English. An explanation is more suitable here than a translation. The name as-Ṣamad means that Allah does not need anything and everything is in need of Him. It indicates that He is All-Knowing, All-Seeing, All-Hearing, All-Powerful, and Ever-Living. It is a comprehensive name that covers many of the other names of Allah.

The mention of this name in this verse serves several purposes. It clarifies that Allah has the most beautiful names and attributes. It demonstrates the perfect power and might of Allah. And it clears up the misunderstanding that Allah needs our worship, or that we don’t need Him. The first verse clears up the doubts of those who believe in several gods. The second verse clears up the doubts of those who believe God has any weaknesses or is in need of assistance. Several religions portray images of their gods as weak and in need. Islam teaches us that Allah is As-Ṣamad. He needs nothing while we all need Him.

The third verse clarifies that Allah is unique in the sense that He has no descendants or ascendants. He is eternal, has always existed, and will always exist. Several religions preach the idea of a family of gods. Even today, there are many people who believe in concepts like someone being the son of God or the mother of God. These concepts are false beliefs that have no basis in revelation. The true God is eternal, He is not the descendant of anyone, nor does He have any children.

The final verse covers the fourth and final principles of Islamic monotheism; there is nothing like Him. This is a complete rejection of anthropomorphism. This may be the most unique aspect of the Islamic understanding of God. Almost every other religion worships an image of God. That image is often human, or a mixture of human and animal. Muslims reject all such images.

God is beyond our imagination, and nothing we think about could be God. He is unique in every possible way, and therefore it is prohibited to even try to imagine Him. This unique aspect of Islamic monotheism has, over the centuries, causes millions of people to convert to Islam. It makes far more sense to worship a God that is beyond human imagination than to worship an image that people made up.

Theological Controversies

The message of these verses is very clear. There is only One God. All of Creation depends on Him. He is eternal without ascendants or descendants, and there is nothing like Him. Despite having such a clear and uncompromising declaration of monotheism in the Quran, Muslims across the globe have developed different interpretations of that final principle; there is nothing like Him.

During the first two centuries of Islam, Muslims tended to avoid discussion on this issue and were united in keeping monotheism simple and pure. Once Greek philosophy was introduced into the Muslim world in the third century, Muslims began to overthink these concepts and split up into several schools of thought. Despite these schools of thought all co-existing peacefully throughout most of Islamic history, these differences have become causes of tension and chaos in our times.

Some zealous Muslims have raised these issues again, and in their zealousness they have declared every understanding of this issue deviant, besides their own. Such extremes can be found in every school of thought regarding the names and attributes of Allah. Their arguing and bickering over these interpretations have distracted the Muslim nation from our priorities and caused unnecessary disunity among Muslims.

Furthermore, these different schools of theology have caused doubt to enter the minds of some young Muslims. They wonder why Muslims differ regarding how to interpret the attributes of God, and how such a difference of opinion can exist on such a fundamental issue. This issue requires a much deeper discussion, and cannot be clarified in a few short paragraphs. I hope to discuss it in more detail at a later point if Allah wills it.

For now, I simply want to remind Muslims that our unity is essential. The differences of opinion that exist among Sunnī Muslims on the names and attributes of Allah are a secondary issue. All Sunnī Muslims believe in the four principles laid down in this Sūrah. All Sunnī Muslims agree upon the five pillars of Islam and the six pillars of faith. Our differences in these issues are simply a matter of interpretation. But Allah is infinitely Merciful and Just. So let us trust Allah’s Mercy and not divide the Muslim nation over secondary issues.

The Quran is very clear regarding the concept of monotheism. Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ summarizes this concept perfectly. If Muslims just stick to what is mentioned in this Sūrah, we can keep our monotheism simple and pure. But unnecessary questioning and argumentation over the nature of God’s attributes only lead to problems and disunity. The nature of God’s attributes is a matter that is beyond human comprehension. So it is best that we avoid overthinking this issue, and focus instead on worshipping Allah.

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Sūrah al-Masad: The Fate of An Evil Man

Sūrah al-Masad: The Fate of An Evil Man

Sūrah al-Masad, also known as Sūrah al-Lahab, is an early Makkan Sūrah focused on the topic of the fate in the Afterlife of Abū Lahab and his wife. This Sūrah is very short and powerful and was revealed early in Islamic History after an incident in which Abū Lahab insulted the Prophet (peace be upon him).

The Reason for Revelation

The reason for the revelation of this Sūrah has been preserved in several authentic narrations. Because of this, we know exactly when and why this Sūrah was revealed. Here is one of those narrations.

Ibn ʿAbbās narrated that when the verse ‘And warn your tribe of near kindred.’ (26.214) was revealed, Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) went out, and when he had ascended As-Safā mountain, he shouted, “O Sabāhāh!” The people said, “Who is that?” Then they gathered around him, whereupon he said, “Do you see? If I inform you that cavalrymen are proceeding up the side of this mountain, will you believe me?” They said, “We have never heard you telling a lie.” Then he said, “I am a plain warner to you of a coming severe punishment.” Abū Lahab said, “May you perish! You gathered us only for this reason?” Then Abū Lahab went away. So the Sūrah al-Lahab was revealed. (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 65: 4971)

It was the custom of the Makkan people that whenever there was danger, they would climb Mount As-Safā and shout, “O Sabāhāh!” to warn their people about the imminent danger. During the first two years of Islam, the message was propagated privately to individuals. It was not really a secret as people knew the Prophet (peace be upon him) had claimed prophethood and was gaining a few followers, but the message had not been proclaimed in public yet.

Then the verse ‘And warn your tribe of near kindred.’ (26.214) was revealed. When this verse was revealed, the Prophet (peace be upon him) gathered his tribe and called them to Islam in public. This public call irritated Abū Lahab for several reasons. Abū Lahab was the paternal uncle of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his only paternal uncle who was openly hostile to him.

Abū Lahab was a wealthy businessman, very materialistic and proud, and a staunch follower of paganism. He viewed the call of his nephew as both a nuisance and an embarrassment to his family name. He was also irritated to have been dragged away from his business to hear the message of Islam. It was in this fit of arrogant anger that he blurted the line that would seal his fate, “May you perish! You gathered us only for this reason?”

The Fate of Abū Lahab

Sūrah Lahab was revealed declaring that it was instead Abū Lahab that would perish and face eternal damnation in Hellfire. These five powerful verses were revealed condemning both him and his wife to the Hellfire. The reason why his fire was included is that she too assisted in trying to stop the spread of Islam, and supported her husband in his crusade against Islam.

“Condemned are the hands of Abū Lahab, and he is condemned. His wealth did not avail him, nor did what he acquired. He will burn in a Flaming Fire. And his wife, the firewood carrier. Around her neck is a rope of thorns” (111:1-5)

There are several remarkable aspects to this short powerful Sūrah. Notice that the Sūrah addresses the fate of Abū Lahab in the past tense as if it was already done and over. Even though Abū Lahab was still alive, and would live for another decade, the Quran declared that his fate was already sealed and he would end up in the Hellfire.

Some scholars read into this a type of miracle. The Quran was prophesizing that Abū Lahab would die upon disbelief, even though he could have repented and converted like many others did after it was revealed. The fact that he did not convert is seen as proof that this verse is a true prophecy and the Quran is a miracle.

Allah knows best whether this is the correct understanding of this Sūrah. For me, I see this as a plausible interpretation, but more probable is that Allah addresses this topic in the past tense because He knows everything and time is irrelevant to Allah. Allah knew that Abū Lahab was destined for Hellfire, so He stated it as a matter of fact. Whether this counts as a prophecy or not, Allah knows best.

Dishonorable Mention

Another interesting fact about this Sūrah is that it is the only place in the Quran in which one of the enemies of Islam from the Quraysh is mentioned by name. The Quran rarely mentions the names of any people that lived during the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) lifetime. Most of the verses about his companions or enemies do not contain any names, and we only know whom they are referring to because of the narrations of reasons for revelation.

There is only one companion mentioned by name in the Quran and only one pagan of the Quraysh mentioned by name in the Quran. The companion is Zaid bin Ḥāritha who is mentioned by name in Sūrah Al-Ahzāb. The only enemy mentioned by name is Abū Lahab in this Sūrah. For Zaid, this is a special honor. But for Abū Lahab, this is a humiliating dishonor.

There is an important theological lesson in Abū Lahab being mentioned by name here, related to judgment and Hellfire. The lesson is that we should not say that any individual is definitely in Paradise or Hell unless this is explicitly mentioned in the Quran or Sunnah. While we firmly believe in the salvific exclusivity of Islam, we do not pass judgment on individuals.

It is important that we distinguish between our theology and judgment. Our theology teaches us that believers will enter Paradise, and disbelievers will enter Hellfire. We believe in this firmly, but we do not pass judgment on any individual without clear evidence. At the end of the day, we do not know which Non-Muslim had an excuse with Allah, or which “pious Muslim” was secretly a hypocrite. Because we lack this knowledge, it is best that we remain silent on the fate of any individual that passes away, and we leave their judgment to Allah’s Perfect Justice and Mercy.

In the case of Abū Lahab, we can state clearly that he is from the people of Hellfire. As this is clearly stated in this Sūrah. The same can be said about Pharaoh, Satan, and the leaders of the Quraysh who were killed in Badr. Because in each of these cases, there is clear evidence in the Quran or Sunnah about their fates. Likewise, we can say that certain companions like the Rightly Guided Caliphs and the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) wives are in Paradise, as this too is clearly stated in several narrations.

Those who insult the Prophet (peace be upon him)

A final lesson we can extract from these verses is that Allah is quick to defend the honor of his beloved Prophet (peace be upon him). Those who insult the Prophet (peace be upon him) and try to harm him will face humiliation in both worlds. This was the case of Abū Lahab with the revelation of this Sūrah, and it is the case for any individual who follows in his footsteps until the end of time, besides those who repent.

The story behind the revelation of this Sūrah should serve as a reminder to us all about the rights of the Prophet (peace be upon him). He deserves the highest level of love and respect, and he should only talk about him with the best of manners and etiquette. We should extend this respect to the narrations about his life, and to his Sunnah too. Those who disrespect the Prophet (peace be upon him) may perish as Abū Lahab perished.  

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Sūrah al-Māʿūn: Small Deeds

Sūrah al-Māʿūn: Small Deeds

Scholars differ over whether this is a Makkan or Madinan Sūrah. The majority classify it as Makkan and a few as Madinan. Some scholars argue that the first half was revealed in Makkah, while the second half was revealed in Madinah. I am inclined towards the third opinion, even though it is a minority opinion.

The reason for this is because the first half of the Sūrah clearly seems to address the Quraysh. But the second half talks about people who are lazy in the prayers and pray for show. These are the hypocrites, and they did not exist during the Makkan Era. Hypocrites only propped up during the Madinan Phase. The fact that half of Sūrah al-Māʿūn addresses the pagans of Makkah, while the other half addresses the hypocrites supports the view that it is half-Makkan and half-Madinan. Allah knows best.

The theme of Sūrah al-Māʿūn is that small acts of kindness and caring for others form fundamental parts of our religion. The religion is not restricted to theology or ritual acts of prayer. Both of these are crucial and essential. But it is also important for the believer to develop a sense of mercy for the creation, and to dedicate a part of his life to taking care of those who are less fortunate.

The Rejecters of the Religion

Allah begins the Sūrah by asking whether we had seen those who rejected the religion. This is referring to the pagans of Makkah, or the hypocrites of Madinah, according to different interpretations. Either way, Allah is drawing our attention to some of the qualities of the rejecters of the truth.

But then the qualities He uses to describe them are not the ones people generally expect. He does not describe them as those who lie against God or don’t pray. These descriptions can be found elsewhere in the Quran. These verses draw our attention to another quality of the disbelievers; apathy towards the poor.

Allah describes these rejecters as people who mistreat orphans and discourage feeding the poor. These points drive home the fact that Islam is a social religion. Our religion focuses not only on our relationship with the Creator but also on our relationship with each other. The believers are one brotherhood and they feel for each other.

Caring for the creation of Allah, and the children of Adam drives a believer to make feeding the poor and caring for orphans a fundamental part of his life. The rejecter, on the other hand, doesn’t care about anyone besides himself. This isn’t true for every disbeliever, as there are exceptions to every rule, but it is a general quality described in these verses. Those who actively deny Allah His Rights will easily deny the Creation their rights as well.

Praying For Show

The next set of verses draws our attention to the importance of intention and quality in our ritual acts of worship. Allah condemns those who pray for show and those who pray lazily. When we pray, we are not doing Allah a favor. We are fulfilling our purpose in life and enriching our own souls.

Salah is the single most important act of worship in Islam. It solidifies our faith, strengthens our relationship with Allah, protects us from immorality, and serves as a means of forgiveness for our daily minor sins. Without Salah, we can easily go astray. This is why abandoning the Salah is directly linked to disbelief in various narrations.

Due to its central importance in Islam, Salah cannot be treated lightly or done in a haphazard manner. It is an act of conversation with the Creator. Therefore, it deserves our purest intention, full attention, and best effort. Praying for show and praying lazily are qualities of the hypocrites. So the believer should strive to avoid these qualities always.

The Small Deeds

The Sūrah ends with a reminder that the hypocrites overlook small deeds. This means that they regard small acts of kindness as insignificant and do not bother doing them. They may even mock a believer who takes out time to do the smaller good deeds.

We see this in our society when believers are mocked for taking time to remember God at work, eating with their rights hands, or even washing properly after using the bathroom. Despite these being obvious acts of piety, modern society scoffs at these concepts as insignificant and a waste of time. The obsession with wealth and fame makes them question the purpose and benefit of these acts of worship.

For the believer, however, there is no such thing as a small deed. Every act of kindness and every little ritual we do assists us in fulfilling our purpose in life. Allah blesses the smaller deeds and grants them lasting effects, high rewards, and often uses them as a reason to forgive His servants for their sins. Knowing this, the believer never neglects the smaller deeds. They are a crucial part of our religion. Together with the bigger deeds, they form part of the perfect comprehensive way of life; Islam.

To learn more Tafsir of the Quran, check out my ebook Themes of the Quran, currently on sale at half price here.

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Sūrah al-Fīl and Sūrah Quraysh

Sūrah al-Fīl and Sūrah Quraysh

These two Sūrahs share a common theme; Allah’s blessings and favors on the Quraysh. Due to this common theme, it is clear that these are Makkan Sūrahs revealed early in Islam to remind the pagans of Makkah about Allah’s favors upon them. Allah had blessed the people of Makkah with both worldly and spiritual favors, yet they rejected his messenger.

Allah revealed these two short powerful Sūrahs to remind the Quraysh of his blessing. Sūrah al-Fīl focuses on spiritual blessings, while Sūrah Quraysh focuses on worldly blessings. The themes of these Sūrahs slow together so well, that Ubay bin Kab considered them as one Sūrah. However, later scholars arrived at a consensus that they are two separate Sūrahs.

Sūrah al-Fīl is a Makkan Sūrah by consensus and has five verses. It was revealed very early in Islamic History with some historians placing it as the nineteenth Sūrah to be revealed. Sūrah Quraysh is Makkan according to the majority view, although a minority of scholars claimed it was Madinan. The content is clearly Makkan and it clearly addresses the Quraysh. Therefore, we will view it as Makkan Sūrah. Its verses are divided into four or five verses according to the different schools of recitation.

The Story of the Elephant

Sūrah al-Fīl is a very brief reminder about the incident of the elephant that took place in Makkah during the year in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) was born. The events that took place that year were still fresh in the minds of the Quraysh and therefore did not need to be explained in detail in the Quran. As a general rule, stories that were well known to the Quraysh are briefly mentioned in the Quran, while stories they were unfamiliar with are discussed in more detail.

That year, an army from Yemen marched upon Makkah intent on destroying the Kabah. This army included war elephants, and the Arabs were incapable of fighting such an army. Instead, they fled to the mountains and asked Allah for help. Allah assisted them in a miraculous manner by destroying the army with birds that pelted them with stones.

The Quraysh had witnessed this clear miracle just a few decades before the advent of Islam. Many of the people who witnessed this event were still alive. This was a clear evidence that Allah is the only true God, Makkah is sacred, and Allah had protected them and their homes and wealth from destruction. Despite witnessing such a clear miracle, the elders of Makkah disbelieved in Islam and rebelled against it. This brief Sūrah was revealed to remind them about this event, so that they may reflect and reconsider their stance towards Islam.

Wealth and Safety

The event of the elephant was not the only blessing Allah had given the Quraysh. He had blessed them with wealth, safety, and honor. Makkah was the hub of religious and economic activity in Arabia. This brought great prestige and wealth to the Quraysh. People from all over Arabic flocked to Makkah for the pilgrimage, and the bi-annual trade routes during summer and winter were always profitable.

Allah reminds the Quraysh of these favors in these short verses, then calls on them to worship Him alone. He reminds them that He granted them safety from hunger and fear. Hunger and fear are the two main causes of chaos and anarchy in society. When people are starving or afraid for their lives, they take to desperate means to protect themselves.

Allah had protected the Quraysh from all of this. All He asked for in return was that they worship him alone and obey His Messenger. Those who did so became the best generation of Muslims. Those who rejected became among the worst of ungrateful disbelievers.

Reflecting on Blessings

Although these verses primarily address the Quraysh, the message of the Quran is eternal. Hence, there are lessons in these verses for all of us. If we take the time to reflect on our own lives, we will find that Allah has blessed us with similar bounties.

In worldly affairs, many of us are blessed with safety from hunger and fear. Many Muslims are also blessed with profitable businesses and abundance of wealth. The blessings that Allah has given us go beyond these. More important than any of these worldly blessings are the spiritual favors Allah has given us.

Allah has blessed us and made us followers of the final prophet (peace be upon him). He has made us a balanced nation, with the potential of being the best of nations if we follow the religion. He has protected His Revelation for us, given us the best role model in the Prophet (peace be upon him), and granted us a perfect way of life.

In return, out of gratitude to Allah, we must dedicate our lives to His Worship. The best way to express gratitude to Allah is to obey Him and worship Him. When we do so, we are fulfilling our purpose in life, and securing our Hereafter. So worship the Lord of This House, the One Who protected you from hunger and Who protected you from fear.

Posted by Ismail Kamdar in Islam, 1 comment